Today a small team from our school district presented on blended learning at the 2016 Techspo conference in Atlantic City, NJ. Techspo is an annual conference devoted to educational technology. I presented with our Superintendent, Jennifer Fano, and our Director of Technology, Peter Emmel. The presentation was really a conversation with session attendees on blended learning and the future of schools. We decided to take a risk and forgo a formal lecture-style presentation in favor of a group conversation in hopes of learning as much from others in the room as we possibly could. Our style was a bit unusual for this conference, but we wanted to engage with the audience and felt a less formal format would work to achieve this.
Our focus throughout the presentation is best explained through a famous research project conducted by Benjamin Bloom in the early 1980s. Bloom (yes, the Bloom’s Taxonomy Bloom) spent many years researching a problem he called the “2 sigma problem.” Bloom and his graduate students conducted a series of experiments that showed that students who receive one-to-one instruction via a tutor significantly outperform students who do not. In fact, students in Bloom’s study that received individual attention from a tutor outperformed those receiving traditional instruction by two standard deviations (sigmas). “Put in another way,” Bloom wrote in 1984, “the average tutored student outperformed 98 percent of the students in the control class.” Bloom then devoted many years of study to try and determine ways schools could close this gap between traditional instructional methods and one-to-one instruction, hence the 2 sigma problem.
However, the most striking of the findings is that under the best learning conditions we can devise–tutoring– the average student is 2 sigmas above the average control student taught under conventional group methods of instruction. –Benjamin Bloom
The reality in education is that it is inherently difficult to offer all students one-to-one instruction. Bloom, however, set out to find ways to accomplish this that were cost-effective for school districts. “An important task of research and instruction,” Bloom writes in explaining his work, “is to seek ways of accomplishing this under more practical and realistic conditions than one-to-one tutoring, which is too costly for most societies to bear on a large scale.” Bloom, of course, conducted his research before widespread adoption of computers in schools so we can only imagine the solutions he might have found if he had the Internet and computers at his disposal as we do today. Our presentation set forth a series of five questions to identify ways in which technology can be used to help solve the 2 sigma problem. Ultimately, we believe that a blended learning approach to instruction along with other student-centered practices can help free up instructional time normally devoted to lecture to allow for increased one-to-one interaction between teachers and students.
For more information on Bloom’s findings consider reading this 1984 article from ASCD: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring or this more technical 1984 paper from Educational Researcher on the same topic: The 2 Sigma Problem.
We would like to thank all the session attendees that stuck around on a Friday afternoon to join our presentation. We were thrilled to have about forty people attend and hope they thought it was worthwhile. And of course, we are grateful to our board of education and the entire Randolph community as they offer our students, teachers, and administrators tremendous support and encouragement.